White certificates, also known as “Energy Efficiency Certificates” (EEC), are marketable securities used in Italy/required in Italy that certify the achievement of energy savings in end-use of energy through actions and projects to increase energy efficiency.
The white certificate system was introduced in Italian legislation by the Ministerial Decrees dated 20 July 2004 and subsequent amendments and establishes that distributors of electricity and natural gas must reach certain quantitative goals of primary energy savings annually, expressed in Tons of Oil Equivalent saved (TOE).
A certificate is equivalent to saving a ton of oil equivalent (TOE).
White Certificates for PVs (photovoltaic)
The price on the stock exchange for Energy Efficiency stocks is around 112 Euros, and a 3 KW photovoltaic system (this varies depending on climatic zones) could produce roughly 300 Euros per year, and a as a result a total of € 1,500 in the 5 years relevant to the subsidized period.
The maximum photovoltaic power subsidy with this system is 19.9 kWp, and the request for White Certificates must take place within 18 months after the system has been connected.
White Certificates cannot be accumulated with any other form of state incentive, while regional ones are allowed, and do not affect the accessibility to Net Metering or Dedicated Withdrawal.